listUserOrders Code Components

Viewing Data via GraphQL

listUserOrders Code Components

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listUserOrders And Graph Theory

As noted before, the line between Query and Object Type schemas in GraphQL is pretty blurred: both have resolvers and may receive source objects from previous steps in the flow. Why is that? Lack of design separation?

Those who know the meaning of term graph in Computer Science, may realize that GraphQL has something to do with it. Adding edges and nodes - we have Graph Theory written all over it. Graph theory views data in botany-like structures: forest, trees, branches. What does it mean for the JS developer?

GraphQL is good for drilling in and retrieving data directly linked to the data we already have. In a relational structure, we join tables when we need to retrieve a set of linked together data. Say, in the User Order use case, we'd join the 2 tables - Order and OrderItem - in a SELECT statement and produce a page of a REST extract with a bunch of fields from both tables in it. We would not even think of doing it in any way differently.

In GraphQL, we don't join pieces of information - rather, we follow the graph structure to find downstream pieces linked to those that we pulled earlier. In the end, we get the same data out, don't be fooled about that. It's just about how we get the data and what advantages one way introduces vs. the other.

So, if we are going after User Order with Order Items, first, we get the Order and then we get the Order Items that comprise the order: two steps vs. one join step. If you don't think there is a big difference - you are probably right. It's just the way the code and the flow is structured. A key advantage, though, of doing it in two steps - depending on the user query, we may not need to run the second step at all, or run it partially only. This fits very well into a browsing use case when we want to show some parts of a multi-layered dataset to the user and offer an opportunity to ask for more from a particular layer.

Back to the Query-Object Type similarity, as Object Type fields in a Graph model may lead to other tree branches, follow-on queries would be utilized to access those downstream branches, feeding their own Object Types, and so on. A field in a SQL paradigm is a table column. A field in a GraphQL paradigm can be a column or an entry into the next layer of data.

Should we be storing the data in some Graph database vs. NoSQL MongoDB? A thorough discussion is out of scope of this course. Let's just say, if you're coming from a Relational background, classifying data into separate structures by its business usage type feels like a natural way of building a data model. Once the data is separated, links between the structures can be determined and described. A tree-like structure feels more restricting building and navigating, and harder to modify.

It looks like mixing different technologies lets us taking advantages of each one's offerings vs. limiting the design by a particular mode of abstraction.

listUserOrders GraphQL Query and Object Types

  • Query: src/relay-queries/user/user-order-list-query.js

    • takes the same arguments we've seen before: orderBy, filterValues, resolverArgs, ...connectionArgs, plus the ID of the User in the form of GlobalId, a required argument:
    user_id: {
      type: new GraphQLNonNull(GraphQLID)
    • returns data per UserOrderConnection Object Type
    • is processed by resolveListUserOrders(obj, args, viewer, info)
  • Object Types:

    • src/relay-models/user-order-type.js defines UserOrderConnection over UserOrderType that contains the Order-level fields we have in the demo, plus a field that represents a sub-query to get the Order Items:
    order_items: {
      type: OrderItemConnection,
      args: {
        orderBy: {
          type: inputTypes.OrderByType
        filterValues: {
          type: inputTypes.FilterValuesType
        resolverArgs: {
          type: inputTypes.QueryResolverArgsType
      resolve: (obj, args, viewer, info) =>
        resolveListOrderItems(obj, args, viewer, info),
      description: 'Order items'

    Here we have the familiar set of arguments we pass to a paging query and another query resolver call, this time to resolveListOrderItems(obj, args, viewer, info)

    Note, though, that we don't include the Order ID into the sub-query arguments. How does resolveListOrderItems know which Order Items to retrieve? This is where the source obj comes into play. Think about it: in the GraphQL processing flow, the parent's resolver resolveListUserOrders completes first - it produces an array of orders as its output object. To get from the query resolver output to the GraphQL response, each record from the array gets processed through the Object Type logic where it acts as the source to the Object Type's field level resolvers. One of the those field level resolvers - order_items - happens to be a query on its own. The obj becomes an argument of that query, and that is where the Order ID comes from.

    Not much different than how source obj is used in one-liner resolvers like this one for the user_id field:

    user_id: globalIdField('User', obj => obj.user_id)

    Other than the obj, though, nothing else gets passed from the parent query down. All the sub-query arguments are separate from those for the parent query, even though they have the same names.

Remember, we learned that GraphQL returns only the fields that the client asked for. Field-level resolvers are not even engaged if the field was not requested by the client. Here's a great example to prove that: if the client does not ask for order_items - resolveListOrderItems will not be called. What a difference from coding REST with table joins! Sure, we could have provide two separate REST end points: one for Order-level and another for Order Item-level data queries. But imagine the amount of work on both server and client sides to separate those.

listUserOrders database query implementation is coded using MongoDB Aggregations - let's take a detailed look at this key technology next

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